Spiritualism is the belief that the souls of the dead pass over onto the first Astral Plane, and from there they can communicate via a Medium to warn, guide, and enlighten the living with the observations they have made from beyond the veil. The Medium communicates between the two worlds through séances. God is the Infinite Intelligence, and when spirits pass over they grow and perfect by moving through a series of hierarchical spheres.
The first Spiritualists were radical Quakers who combined supernatural practices within their own religion. This belief system was hugely popular with middle and upper class Americans and Europeans between 1840 – 1920. During the American Civil War period a lot of grieving parents tried supernatural sources in a desperate attempt to communicate with their lost sons, including President Abraham Lincoln and his wife Mary. Another historical surge happened during The Great War too, for similar reasons. Unfortunately, trances, séances, and automatic writing developed into profitable showmanship for paying audiences and therefore became susceptible to widespread fraud. The Seybert Commission discredited many famous practitioners.
Both Arthur Conan Doyle and Charles Dickens were members of the Ghost Club established in London, 1862. These men undertook the scientific study of paranormal activities in order to prove or disprove their existence. During the 1920s Harry Houdini campaigned to expose fraudulent Mediums. And in 1921 Thomas Lynn Bradford committed suicide hoping to prove the existence of the afterlife, but no communication was ever heard from him again.
Although Spiritualism as a religion has been widely discredited there has been a continuing interest in Spiritual Healing. This is a holistic practice where the Medium aids a sick person by transmitting curative energy that works with the mind, spirit, emotion, and body of the recipient. Does it work?
What do you believe?
Britannica.com. “Spiritualism,” at http://www.britannica.com/topic/spiritualism-religion
Purple haze, all in my brain,
Lately, things they don’t seem the same.
Acting funny, but I don’t know why,
Excuse me while I kiss the sky.
Purple haze, all around,
Don’t know if I’m coming up or down.
Am I happy or in misery?
What ever it is, that girl put a spell on me.
Oh, no, no!
Ooo, ahhh, yeah!
Purple haze all in my eyes,
Don’t know if it’s day or night.
You got me blowing, blowing my mind.
Is it tomorrow, or just the end of time?
Ahh, yea-yeah, purple haze.
Oh, no, oh!
Oh, help me.
Tell me, tell me, purple haze.
I can’t go on like this!
You’re making me blow my mind.
Purple haze, n-no, nooo!
Robert Pinsky was the U.S. Poet Laureate from 1997-2000, and therefore my expectations for his translation of Dante Alighieri’s masterpiece The Inferno were very high. I was not disappointed.
Pinsky recreates the medieval world view of religion and society -the original political subtext – the stunning imagery – and the 3-line interlocking stanzas of the terza rima rhyming scheme to great effect
Staying close to Dante’s intent, Pinsky underscores the symbiotic relationship between poetry and love. He draws parallels between the narrator’s journey from Hell to Heaven with that of Ulysses’ adventures in Homer’s Odyssey, maintaining the power of the original poetry and making it accessible to the modern reader. The Italian text is printed alongside the revised translation.
Dante’s work has influenced a wide range of intellectuals from Galileo through to the Modernists of the early 20th Century, particularly T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and James Joyce. Many artists have chosen to illustrate The Inferno in their own style. This edition contains 35 interesting monotypes by Michael Mazur, though I personally favor the earlier illustrations of Salvador Dali.
The Divine Comedy is an epic poem written by Dante Alighieri between 1308-1320 AD. As one of the most influential books ever composed, this religious allegory about the importance of salvation marks the start of Italian literature.
The story begins at Easter in the year 1300. There are three parts (cantiche) – aligning with the Trinity’s Father Son, and Holy Ghost. They are entitled Hell (Inferno), Purgatory (Purgatorio) and Heaven (Paradiso). Each section has 33 Songs (cantos), except for the first part which has 34. These add up to a total of 100 Songs to represent Dante’s “perfect” number 10 (10 x 10 = 100).
Written in the first person, Dante imagines his soul’s spiritual quest as it ventures from darkness into light.
“Midway on our life’s journey, I found myself
In dark woods, the right road lost . . .”
The narrator wakes up one day to find himself in the dark forest of sin. The spirit of Virgil appears and promises to lead him on the path of salvation through Hell, Purgatory, and into Heaven. Virgil eventually hands him over to Beatrice (the ideal woman).
Dante’s world is full of monsters and demons. Each soul is punished according to its former deeds, which range from small self-indulgent transgressions such as a lack of willpower. to violent and malicious crimes. Hell is portrayed as an underground funnel made up of circles. At the bottom sits Satan who perpetually gnaws on history’s three worst traitors: Judas, Brutus, and Cassius. The punishments inflicted on the travelers are vivid and relentless – the stuff of eternal nightmares. Yet those sinners who have confessed to their crimes before death are eventually permitted to leave Hell and head through Purgatory in search of Heaven.
Purgatory is a mountain made up of 7 rings, with the Garden of Eden at the top. Once cleansed of their sins, the wandering souls rise up toward Heaven where God appears as a vision of light.
Dante’s morality poem is a tale of justice and retribution. The wrong-doers are punished for their past crimes with the worst torments imaginable. They have to suffer alone and abandoned, devoid of help or hope.
So why is this classic called The Divine Comedy when it is a full-blown scary vision of Hell? Because Dante’s epic has a happy ending and therefore is not considered a tragedy in the standard literary tradition.